Tourism International Scientific Conference Vrnjačka Banja - TISC 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Prof. Drago Cvijanović, Ph.D. Open Journal Systems <p>The objectives of the International scientific conference "TOURISM IN FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA – Тourism as a Generator of Employment", which will be held from the 30<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;May to the 1<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;June 2019 in Vrnjačka Banja, organized by the Faculty of Hotel Management and Tourism in Vrnjačka Banja, University of Kragujevac, refer to the consideration of various tourism-related aspects and impact of tourism, as one of the world-leading industries, to the development of the countries. The basic idea is to systematize the effects of tourism on the economic, political, demographic, social development by one multidisciplinary approach.<br><br>Having in mind that the World Tourism Day 2019 will be marked under the title&nbsp;<em>Tourism and Jobs: a better future for all</em>, that travel and tourism sector in 2017 accounted for 9.9% of global employment (over 313 million jobs), that in the last decade one out of five jobs created worldwide is either directly or indirectly related to tourism, while nearly 100 million new tourism-related jobs could be created over the next decade, that reduction of unemployment rate is set as one of the key priorities of economic policy makers and governments around the world, the specific objective of the 4<sup>th</sup>International Scientific Conference is to consider the role and importance of tourism in generating new jobs, reducing the unemployment and increasing the living standard of the population of the Republic of Serbia and other countries.<br><br>In achieving aforementioned Conference objectives, we highly encourage contributions of tourismologists, economists, managers, lawyers, urban planners, sociologists, demographers, geographers, other eminent scientists from universities, institutes, colleges, including representatives of tourism organizations and local self-governments from Serbia and other countries. Organizer’s intention is to open debate on the role tourism plays in the economy of different countries, factors which influence tourism development, measures that need to be taken to adapt to those developments, challenges tourism industry is facing in the digital era, balance that needs to be made between the rights and obligations of the users and providers of tourism services in order to ensure competitiveness of business, etc. It is expected that discussion not only gives answer to many current questions, but also to encourage new ones, in order to improve the tourism-related theory and practice.</p> COVID CRISIS AND TOURISM EVOLUTION IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: ADAPT TO REALITIES OR REINVENT THE FUTURE? 2021-09-12T17:24:44+02:00 Jean Vasile Andrei Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi <p><em>The health crisis has exerted a significant pressure on the global economic system, implicitly on the evolution of tourism, value chain creation and supply chains, generating shocks on various national economic sectors. In this context, the objective of the paper is to make a brief synoptic analysis on the evolution of the tourism sector in some EU countries. Two periods of time were considered - before the onset of the pandemic (2018-2019) and during the pandemic (in 2020). The results of the analysis confirm the specific trends of reducing the multiplicative effects that tourism has on the economy as well as the decrease, even contracting of the sector, a phenomenon identified through specific analyzed indicators.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 CRISIS ON ROMANIAN TOURISM 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Ancuța Marin Steliana Rodino <p><em>The paper presents the evaluation of the impact of the COVID-19 health crisis on tourism in Romania with a focus on the market effects and the impact on tourism operators. The onset of the COVID-19 health crisis in March 2020 led to restrictions on the movement of people, which led to behavioral changes in accommodation as well as in the behavior of tourists (tourism consumers). The objective of this paper is to analyse the changes in the hospitality industry sector, highlighting the changes in the behavior of turism consumers.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19 EFFECTS ON TOURISM SECTOR AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TOUR GUIDES PROFESSION IN SERBIA 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Andrea Žerajić <p><em>The tourism industry is one of the sectors that have been hit the hardest by the Corona crisis worldwide. The pandemic has crippled domestic and international travel for the most part, resulting in significant revenue losses and liquidity problems for all tourism businesses. In the aftermath of the crisis, the industry will have to contend with people's increased need for security and trust. Tourism and hospitality industry are the most endangered industries across the globe. Tour guides represent the profession that may have been affected the most, precisely because of the seasonal nature of their work, as well as because of the way they are engaged. This paper aims to point out the problems faced by tour guides during the pandemic as well as to present, through interviews with tour guides in Serbia, the position and efforts of the professional association of tour guides of Serbia and their attempts to improve their status during this period.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON WORLD TOURISM 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Aneta Stojanovska-Stefanova Marija Magdinceva-Sopova <p><em>The article presents the effects of Covid-19 world tourism in 2020. The goal of the paper is to research the consequences of the pandemic on the tourism sector. The paper presents and reviews the available information on how tourism was affected by the pandemic, endangered jobs, and ways in which countries are dealing with the consequences. The paper discusses possible measures and scenarios of the countries to mitigate the effects of the crisis and accelerate the recovery of tourism and the economy. Summarizing the findings, authors will conclude that the disruption in tourism from the pandemic had a huge impact on the wider economy, and countries’ governments reacted quickly. The scope of imposed measures expanded continuously during the crisis. At the end, recommendations are given for the priorities for renewal of tourism and protection of jobs, as recommendations for solidarity and promotion of mutual cooperation.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY ESTIMATION OF THE OPTIMAL COVID-19 PREDICTORS FOR GLOBAL TOURISM 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Boris Kuzman Biljana Petković <p><em>COVID-19 is a pandemic that has emerged as a result of 2019-novel coronavirus droplet infection (2019-nCoV). Recognition of its risk and prognostic factor is critical due to its rapid dissemination and high casefatality rate. Tourism industry as one of the greatest industries has suffered a lot in the pandemic situation. The main aim of the study was to present travelers’ reaction during the pandemic by data mining methodology. The effect of eleven predictors for COVID-19 was also analyzed. The used predictors are: population density, urban population percentage, number of hospital beds, female and male lung size, median age, crime index, population number, smoking index and percentage of females. As the output factors, infection rate, death rate and recovery rate were used. The analyzing procedure was performed by adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The results revealed that the frequency of the used words in the pandemic show the highest impact on the travelers’ reactions. Number of hospital beds and population number is the optimal combination for the best prediction of infection rate of COVID-19.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DIGITAL MARKETING OF AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS IN SUPPORT OF RURAL TOURISM DURING THE COVID PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Branko Mihailović Vesna Popović <p><em>The paper explores the possibilities of restructuring the activities of rural tourism in Serbia, during the COVID pandemic. Having in mind the shock experienced by the tourism sector, as well as the area of rural tourism, digital marketing of agricultural and food products is imposed as one of the solutions. Namely, through online platforms and modern logistics, producers can consolidate business revenues during a pandemic, when rural tourism is almost impossible. The move can be seen as a short-term business restructuring caused by a pandemic. In that way, with the measures of state support, the area of rural tourism in Serbia can be preserved, in order to be ready for the period after the pandemic. Digitization enables small agricultural producers to survive and strengthen their market position in conditions of intensified global competition. This is achieved through digital cooperation, which can play the role of one large agricultural producer, thus achieving the effects of economies of scale, size and breadth.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON THE TOURIST OFFER AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF KUČEVO 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Cvijan Mekić Milivoje Ćosić <p><em>The corona virus pandemic has imperilled tourist destinations around the world, completely disrupting all types of traffic and border traffic. The global corona virus pandemic has brought with it major changes in trade, industry, agriculture and transportation. The negative effect of the pandemic on agriculture is reflected in the loss of the market. Tourism and catering are affected first, as arrangements are canceled and people go out to restaurants less. The next important branch that got affected is industry due to supply chain disruption. Economic activity has pretty much stalled in many sectors, and yet agriculture and food production are mentioned as saviors of national economies. The maxim is known as "there is no stable state without a consistent agrarian policy and a developed agricultural sector". Tourism is an important activity that is seriously counted on in the municipality of Kučevo. The festival of original folk art "Homoljski motivi" is organized in the municipality, moreover, at the territory of the municipality we can find the gold-bearing river Pek and the attractive caves Ceremošnja and Ravništarka. They are tourist content by which the municipality of Kučevo has long been recognizable. The absence of tourist activity on the territory of the municipality of Kučevo affected the reduction of the tourist offer, such as the preparation of traditional food using local products, which all has a negative impact on agricultural production, primarily livestock products.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ROLE OF TRAVEL HEALTH INSURANCE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT - CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES 2021-09-12T17:24:45+02:00 Danijela Glušac <p><em>Travel health insurance is insurance for travellers during their travel and stay in a foreign country in case of necessary assistance in connection with the arrangement and provision of necessary treatment, transport to the medical institution or country of residence, due to sudden illness or injury of the insured. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic mainly affected this area of insurance, and therefore, insurers were presented with challenges. The need for research on travel health insurance can be seen in the complexity of the relationships, types and modalities. The author analyses the essential characteristics of this type of insurance, indicating the legislative framework and contract regulation in general and special conditions of insurers. This paper aims at contributing to research of travel health insurance. This study will significantly to the limited literature on travel health insurance, and it will have an implication on the insurance sector for further diversification of their products.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BRANDING OF STATES AND NATIONS IN (POST) COVID 19 ERA 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Dejan Dašić Boban Dašić <p><em>The subject of this paper is the COVID-19 pandemic impact on nations and states branding. Nations branding is very important for their global position. That is why there are numerous specific ways for state branding: film industry, sports events, civil engineering ventures, cultural and public events, diplomacy, celebrities, public relations, tourism etc. In general, people know very little or nothing about individual nations and states, so sports and tourism, as globally popular advents, may represent extraordinary set for their promotion. Globalism is a process of whose activities no state or person is spared. It is followed with numerous advantages but with numerous menaces too. With one of them, the world is struggling these days – the COVID-19 pandemic. Sports events all around the world are postponed or canceled in an effort to stop the virus from spreading. Pandemic and counties lockdowns almost killed global tourism.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF PANDEMIC CORONA VIRUS ON COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Dragan Vojinović Nevena Kapor <p><em>Communication and information technologies have greatly influenced the changes of tourism as an activity, especially when it comes to distribution channels in tourism, achieving more accurate and closer communication with customers/tourists, easier access to information, which ultimately affected the creation of market competition with the focus on the tourist. Communication in the tourism industry is of universal importance if the goal is an adequate level of tourist satisfaction as well as competitiveness in the local and global market. Communication is not just promotional activity aimed at attracting tourists, but the totality of relationships that are realized before arrival, during staying and after the departure of tourists, and their quality determines the ratio of expected and achieved satisfaction of a service user. The aim of the research is to understand the different effects that communication (verbal and non-verbal) has in restrictive business conditions. In addition, the paper seeks to point out the practical aspects of the communication process of all participants, directly or indirectly, involved in the creation and provision of services in the tourism industry, with reference to the time of the pandemic.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IMPACT OF PANDEMIC ON SELECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN SOUTHERN AND EASTERN SERBIA 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Dragana Ilić Predrag Stamenković <p><em>Natural and anthropogenic tourist values, along with the appropriate tourist infrastructure and superstructure, represent the basis for the development of tourism in an area. In modern conditions, when it comes to tourist demand, there are more and more specific motives that encourage tourists to travel. This leads to the segmentation of tourist demand and opportunities for the development of selective forms of tourism. The aim of this paper is to consider the possibilities for the development of selective types of tourism in the region of Southern and Eastern Serbia and the specifics of regional tourism development in the conditions of Covid-19 pandemic.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Dragana Lazić Nedjo Danilović <p><em>The subject of the paper is human resource management during the pandemic. The authors highlighted two issues: the influence of human resource management on business results in tourism and the impact of COVID-19 on labor law, psychological and interpersonal relationships in organizations dealing with tourism. The scientific goal is to confirm the hypothetical assumption that the COVID-19 pandemic limited and modified activities related to human resources management in tourism in emergency conditions. The paper uses the general scientific statistical and comparative method and method of document content analysis. The end effect of the work is two results: one, that COVID-19 affects the quality and quantity of human resource management in tourism, and the other, that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduces the satisfaction of basic tourism needs and requires the involvement of more institutions to preserve the satisfaction and safety of tourism employees and users of tourist services. The ultimate purpose of the paper is to harmonize the Labor Law regulations in the conditions of mass pandemics.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE INFLUENCE OF FEARS ON THE TRAVEL DECISION - COVID FEAR AGAINST MONEY FEAR 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Drago Cvijanović Tamara Gajić <p><em>The American National Institute of Mental Health announced that 10% of the total adult population has some kind of phobia. With the appearance of the COVID - 19 infection, and the huge consequences it left behind, there is a growing fear of people deciding to travel. There is a growing fear of infection after a year, but also a fear of lack of money, at a time when protection measures have destroyed tourism and hospitality. About 6,000 experts, including many scientists from the UK, say Covid measures are physically and mentally harmful to health, as well as to the social environment and the economy. The authors of the paper conducted an online research on the degree of strength of two types of fear that potentially influence the decision to travel. The research was conducted during 2020, on a total sample of 250 respondents. Confirming the reliability of the questionnaire, the obtained results were processed in the software SPSS, 23.00. Descriptive statistical analysis, and multiple regression analysis, confirmed the hypothesis that fears are present in all respondents, and that both types of fears are important in predicting and making travel decisions.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ASSESSMENT OF THE PANDEMIC SHOCK ON THE TOURISM SECTOR - THE CASE OF CROATIA 2021-09-12T17:24:46+02:00 Ivan Ružić Petra Popek Biškupec <p><em>Due to the pandemic crisis, the decline in cross-border travel has caused deterioration of consumption and induced the collapse of domestic consumption. Finally, the drop of the consumption in travel service affected the travel trade balance and caused decline of the economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the pandemic shock on the touristic sector in Croatia and to measure the effect of this negative trend. The research will be conducted using the SVAR model to disclose pandemic shock. The analysis considers the effect of the pandemic shock on the performance of the tourism sector, what is approximated by CROBEX turist index. Also, the analysis tests the impact of pandemic shock on turnover of the hotel industry. The results confirm the large-scale shock in the touristic sector and implicate the importance of measuring shock in assessing future trends and proposing measures for economic recovery in Croatia.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ROLE OF EMPLOYER BRAND IN HOTEL COMPANIES DURING COVID-19 CRISIS 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Jasmina Ognjanović Marijana Bugarčić <p><em>Hospitality and tourism is one of economic braches which has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Finding the ways and identifying the measures for recovering from the crisis which has been lasting for more than a year is the key task of hotel managers and leaders. The main objective of this paper is to examine the state of affairs in the hotel industry that has been devastated by COVID-19 and analyze the possible tools for human resource management in hotels, all with the aim of mitigating the consequences of the crisis. Inductive and deductive research methods were used for the needs of this analysis. One of the possible solutions for overcoming the crisis of human resource management is employer brand. Investing in employer brand may result in creating specific benefits for employees - functional, economic and psychological benefits. During the pandemic, the benefits for employees are expanded to job security, health protection and psychological recovery of employees.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A NEW CONTEXT AND AESTHETICS OF SERBIAN TRADITIONAL CUISINE IN THE AGE OF PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Katarina Stojanović <p><em>The new millennium brings new twists, as we are witnessing old becoming new again and cultures and cuisines repeating themselves. Culture has always followed or imposed contemporary challenges. Consequently, food culture also participates in global occurrences, such as the recurrence of economic collapses, health cataclysms, natural disasters, the consequences of climate change, etc. The 2020 global pandemic has indicated that the planet is not going in the right direction. The aim is to observe deeper meanings and paradoxes, predict the consequences and describe the role of new approaches and technologies in the traditional gastronomy of the region on the basis of empirical evidence and a case study for the location of Serbia. The dynamics of experience, authenticity, re-representations in the form of new aesthetics are being examined. New culinologies, as a combination of culinary art and food science, will define the future of food in the age of pandemic and as well as new challenges in general, in order to neutralize them or use their power for the sake of humanity.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## USING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE HEALTH RISK AND RESTORE TRAVELERS’ CONFIDENCE 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Ljiljana Stanojevic <p><em>During last year tourism and hospitality industry recorded significant losses due to the Covid-19 pandemics. One of the reasons is that indoor activities have been recognized as one of the main contributor to virus spread. Innovative technologies can play a key role in reducing indoor interaction between guests and staff, keeping social distancing, and providing a high level of cleaning standards. This research aimed to examine whether the implementation of innovative technologies may influence customers’ perception of health risk and whether their implementation in hotels may lead to greater travelers’ confidence in the COVID-19 era. An experimental study was conducted using online customer samples. The purposed questionnaire was developed based on preventive measures taken by leading hotels and hotel chains. The sample includes 180 examinees between 20 and 54 years of age. The results indicate that the implementation of innovative technologies in reducing contact and enhancing cleanliness have a significant impact on customers’ perceived health risk and restoring travelers’ confidence.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM IN SERBIA: THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 ON THE TOURISM MARKET 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Marija Mandarić Dejan Sekulić <p><em>The COVID-19 of significantly affects the global economic, health, political, socio-cultural systems. The impacts of COVID-19 show a tendency that this crisis may have long-term structural changes in tourism as a socio-economic activity and industry. The paper discusses the impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to identify the fundamental values, institutions, chalenges and limitations that the tourism industry and academia should perceive, in order to advance the research and tourism practice frontiers. It is necessary to investigate the state and perspective of the tourist market in Serbia, in order to give recommendations and contribution to the recovery of tourism activity after COVID-19.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IN POST - COVID-19 TOURISM RECOVERY 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Marija Paunovic <p><em>The COVID-19 pandemic, along with responses to pandemic control in the form of a national blockade with widespread application of travel restrictions, has made tourism one of the most vulnerable sectors. With increasing mitigation measures in many countries regarding tourism and travel restrictions in some segments, different tourism recovery programs are being launched according to the specifics of each country. The paper will consider various proposed measures through different impact factors set in order to accelerate the recovery of the tourism sector. Selected mathematical models will be presented and discussed.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPORTANCE OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CREATION OF TOURISM OFFERS DUE TO COVID-19 EXPANSION 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Milan Počuča Jelena Matijašević <p><em>The Covid-19 virus pandemic has so far affected all aspects of human life and activity around the planet in an extremely invasive way. What has significantly attracted the attention of the general public is the impact of Covid-19 on the tourism sector, which, last year, suffered daily immeasurable losses. During the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, areas with relatively low population density came to the forefront in the domain of creating a tourism offer. In times of crisis, rural areas with open, unpolluted spaces, such as protected natural areas, become very attractive and sought after. Bearing in mind that, rural areas are those parts of the territory that has a relatively low population density, but may also have certain characteristics in terms of natural, geographical, and climate specifics, also in terms of the economy, etc. The research part of this paper will deal with the ratio of tourist arrivals and overnight stays, and indexes of tourist demand in 2020 in comparison to 2019, as well as the analysis of the frequency of visitation of tourist spots in Serbia.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## INCREASED DEMANDS FOR NATURAL IMMUNO- BOOSTERS IN SELECTED TOURISM AREAS 2021-09-12T17:24:47+02:00 Milica Luković Jovan Nićiforović <p><em>Rural areas have been facing distinctive challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. As in other parts of the world, in the Republic of Serbia noticed movement of people from places with high concentration of settlements, like cities, into less densely populated communities. Searching for rural, natural, wild areas far away from cities, tourists made different pressures on local environment (sound, litter, pressure on natural resources, pollution) but also increased demands for healthier way of living in accordance with World Health Organization recommendation during the Covid 19 period. Besides a clear environment, they would like to enjoy locally produced food and wild edible plants as a source of minerals, vitamins and other functional substances for strengthening immunity. Using standard botanical questionnaire, the research was conducted in selected rural areas with the aim to create a list of the most wanted wild edible plants by tourists and to overview their potential contribution to immune system strengthening in the COVID-19 pandemic period.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TOURISM POLICY CHALLENGES AMID COVID-19 2021-09-12T17:08:59+02:00 Miljan Leković Sonja Milutinović <p><em>The COVID-19 pandemic devastated tourist turnover and caused a crisis of unprecedented proportions in the tourism economy. The strong impact of the pandemic on the tourism sector requires even stronger response of tourism policy, whose primary task is to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and, firstly, to propose measures to support the current tourism sector, and then measures aimed at recovering this activity and increasing its flexibility and resistance to future challenges. In this regard, the aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of effective and responsible tourism policy in crisis situations and point out the numerous challenges faced by tourism policy makers when defining measures to support the tourism economy. By applying qualitative economic analysis, it was concluded that there is no single solution, i.e. universal measures and universal packages of assistance to the tourism sector equally applicable and effective for all countries, but that each country, when creating tourism policy, should respect its own specifics and strive to create a package of measures that will generate the best results in the national framework.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACTS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 2021-09-12T17:09:39+02:00 Nataša Đorđević Snežana Milićević <p><em>The COVID -19 pandemic made 2020 a devastating year for the tourism industry. To stop the spreading of the virus the restrictive measures such as lockdowns, have affected many economies, from which tourism suffers directly and greatly. The purpose of this study is to analyze the state of tourism at the international level and tourism in the Republic of Serbia during the pandemic, by examining the tourist arrivals and overnight stays in 2020. At the international level, the loss in tourism arrivals and receipts experience even the leading regions in tourism. Also in Serbia, there is a noticeable decrease in foreign tourist arrivals and overall tourist arrivals in 2020.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS CAUSED BY COVID-19 ON WOMEN'S ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TOURISM IN SERBIA 2021-09-12T17:10:28+02:00 Nebojša Pavlović <p><em>The aim of this paper is to consider the impact of the crisis caused by Covid-19 on tourism and on women's entrepreneurship in tourism in Serbia. The paper will use the methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction, specification and generalization, observation, testing, content analysis, and case study. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that the crisis caused by Covid-19 on the one hand led to (1) the closure of a large number of entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism, as a result of which a large number of women entrepreneurs lost their jobs; (2) the increased importance of domestic tourism due to the increase in the participation of domestic tourists in total tourist trends. In the future, more attention should be paid to the possibility of training women entrepreneurs in the field of tourism.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE STATE OF TOURISM IN EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:11:22+02:00 Nemanja Pantić Marija Lakićević <p><em>The Covid-19 pandemic has left an impact on the whole world and all economic activities without exception. There are already indications of the consequences, and they will be fully perceptible only after the pandemic is over, which still seems far away. One of the general characteristics of tourism is vulnerability during periods of crisis which everyone globally has to face. Since the beginning of 2020, and especially since March, a drastic drop in tourist travels on the tourism market of the European Union, or its member states, is obvious. The goal of this paper is to define a model which will be able to predict changes in tourist visits based on their movements in previous periods. The analysis includes all European Union member states and changes in the number of tourist visits on a monthly basis during 2020. The model will also enable future predictions, which is very important for tourism policy carriers, as well as for the tourism offer which can adapt to expectations.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TOURIST DEVELOPMENTS IN COVID PANDEMIC CONDITIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF ISTRIA COUNTY, CROATIA 2021-09-12T17:12:16+02:00 Pavlo Ružić Dragoljub Amidžić <p><em>The occurance of the COVID pandemic in 2020 caused major health problems to the population and the world economy, an economic crisis with an evident decline in financial and productive power, rising unemployment and falling living standards. Unemployment and declining living standards were reflected in tourism trends, which were largely absent in such conditions. Following the stated assumptions, the purpose and goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of the COVID pandemic in the segments of tourist trends on the example of the Istrian tourist destination. The research was conducted from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Theoretical research is focused on finding relevant insights into the impact of the COVID pandemic on tourism trends. Empirical research based on statistical indicators will determine the quantitative impact of the pandemic on tourism trends.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES IN TOURIST’S RISK PERCEPTION AND TRAVEL INTENTION DURING COVID-19 HEALTH CRISIS: CASE STUDY OF SERBIA 2021-09-12T17:12:59+02:00 Sandra Dramićanin Goran Perić <p><em>The research purpose is determination of the differences in Serbian tourist’s perceived risk, during the COVID-19 health crisis, according to travel intention and destination of travel. In order to accomplish an analysis of differences between risks (travel risk, destination risk, health risk, financial risk), risk scores were calculated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Testing the differences in relation to the travel intention and destination of travel during the COVID-19 pandemic according to risk perception was conducted through one-way MANOVA, where two models were applied. The outcome of the first model shows: significant impact of travel intention on a linear combination of risk factors. Also, taking into account all four risk factors, there are significant differences between those who intend to travel during a pandemic and those without that intention. In the second model, the findings indicate significant impact of the travel destination on a linear combination of risk factors, and significant differences between those respondents who intend to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic in the country and those respondents who intend to travel abroad according towards the perception of health risk, destination risk, and travel risk.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "COVID PASSPORTS" - LEGAL ASPECT, POSSIBLE USE AND IMPACT ON TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 2021-09-12T17:13:55+02:00 Sanja Škorić Vladimir Jovanović <p><em>"COVID" or immunity passports are classified as one of the reactions to the world pandemic and its suppression at the international level. Given that implications of this document, its legal nature, the manner of exercising the right to it, etc., are still not quite clear, various dilemmas may arise regarding this document. Also, how much will another bureaucratic obligation in connection with the organization of travel affect tourism, which has suffered incredible financial losses in the past year? It is very difficult to predict the direction of development of tourism and tourist services, especially not after the adoption of the basic rules that will concern "COVID" passports. There are dilemmas about this document in the legal sense, as well as in the sense of its obligation - will each state individually decide whether it is obligatory to enter in it or will it be one of the obligations of everyone at the international level?</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DOES EU FUNDING SUPPORT THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE TOURISM OFFER IN SERBIA AS A RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC? 2021-09-12T17:14:49+02:00 Snežana Maksimović Milan Stamatović <p><em>The aim of the paper is to answer the question of whether EU funding supports tourism in Serbia in a situation where this sector of the economy is facing astonishing figures of decline which is caused by the coronavirus. The paper is divided into two segments. The first part is based on the presentation of the possibility of diversification of the tourist offer in Serbia and the second part provides an overview of the literature related to EU funds. The research is interdisciplinary because it includes selective forms of tourism which united in a single tourist product can contribute to a tourist valorization of all areas and contribute as a response to the crisis caused by the pandemic. Contribution of EU funds can be seen through the connection between investment activities and the increase in tourist traffic. The special goal of the paper is education and raising awareness about the preservation of rural and eco areas, eco production and healthy lifestyles, which will contribute to the tourist offer and also a pleasure and enjoyment for visitors.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN PERSONAL AND BUSINESS TRAVEL SERVICES 2021-09-12T17:15:37+02:00 Svetlana Ignjatijević Jelena Vapa Tankosić <p><em>The world today is facing one of the worst pandemics in modern history. Around the world, financial markets are in serious difficulties, the consequences of which have begun to spill over into the tourism sector. Covid-19 has caused sharp contractions in economic development, reduced mobility and has contacted tourism flows as the international tourist arrivals in most world sub-regions recorded declines from -60% to -70%. The aim of this paper is to analyze the international travel in the field of personal and business travel in the period of 2010-2019 exported to and imported from the Republic of Serbia. The findings show that the international travel for personal purposes has achieved the greatest value over the years, the second place is taken by travel for business purposes, whereas education-related travel achieved the third place. Exported and imported values of the category Travel, Personal and Travel, Business has the highest value of exports and imports from Serbia to European Union (EU 28), with Germany, Greece, Austria and Italy having the highest flows of exported and imported values. In 2020 Asia and the Pacific, was the region to suffer the hardest impact of Covid-19. On the second place there is Europe, followed by the Americas, Africa and the Middle East.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN PSYCHOTHERAPY AND HEALTH TOURISM DURING COVID 19 PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:17:56+02:00 Svetlana Zdravković Slobodan Jovičić <p><em>During the COVID-19 pandemic, the psychological approaches in both psychotherapy and health tourism have kept their essence and importance, but the experts are being confronted with challenges that demand changes. The goal of the paper is to examine newly established circumstances caused by COVID-19 pandemic as well as their influence on psychotherapy and health tourism - areas of great value for maintaining mental and physical health and the wellbeing. The modifications in the psychological approach could be connected with: the use of new technologies, spending time outdoor with an obligatory social distancing, the reduction and lack of the physical contact, etc. The use of creativity in psychotherapy and health tourism, expressed, among other valuable ways, by the use of active imagination, a well known method of analytical psychology, is being discussed and the hermeneutic method has been applied for analyzing the positive effect and benefits on individuals` wellbeing and health.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION WITH DOMESTIC TOURISTS IN RECOVERING FROM COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-09-12T17:19:32+02:00 Tatjana Cvetkovski Violeta Cvetkovska Tomanović <p><em>At the time of the Covid-19 pandemic, when tourist traffic is falling sharply, domestic tourists become very important. They become the dominant or even the only source of income for tourism sector. This paper shows that due to the closure of countries in order to reduce the possibility of spreading disease, both the number of tourists and the number of overnight stays declined. However, in the summer months and during the holidays, domestic tourists filled capacities and resourceful individuals managed to take advantage of the opportunity that arose by adjusting their offer and/or tourist product. The conducted research is based on statistical data from the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Given the recovery period of the tourism sector as well as the possibility of new and similar diseases in the future, communication with domestic tourists will become increasingly important, as shown by this research.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC EFFECTS ON THE HOTEL INDUSTRY 2021-09-12T17:20:35+02:00 Vesna Milovanović <p><em>The novel coronavirus pandemic has brought about significant disruptions to hotel operations, affecting demand for hotel services and guests’ behavior, as well as financial stability of hotel companies and, consequently, hotel employees. A hotel company is interconnected with various partners in the supply chain, thus, the problem in hotel operation is transferred upstream the supply chain. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the COVID-19 impact on the hotel business, and provisions to cope with the new reality, including safety measures, technology application, quality of service, marketing communication, human resource management, and the supply chain management. Many authors believe that majority of these provisions will prevail in the postCOVID-19 environment, as people will be more cautious regarding safety. Apart from huge destructive impact, the present crisis will also have some positive effects, such as improved innovativeness, resilience, efficient communication and care for internal and external customers, all resulting in improved quality of hotel service.</em></p> 2021-06-03T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##