• Montserrat Crespi Vallbona University of Barcelona, Faculty of Economics and Business, Economy and Business Organization Department
  • Darko Dimitrovski University of Kragujevac, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Hotel Management and Tourism
Keywords: spas, health-express, health tourism, well-being, economic driving force, Spain


Throughout history, care and well-being are concepts that have been always present in many societies and cultures. Nowadays, this concept becomes a continuously growing field as consequence of people’s will to reach a specific quality of life. Construction of spas had an important growing period in the 19th century, although just a little segment of society could enjoy them. Nowadays, this spa tradition was almost lost, but it has recently increased demand thanks to the services for people who need to reduce their daily stress or those who are just doing some sort of body care. Therefore, spas all over the world have been recovered, extended and modernized to focus on these target market demands. Actual trend of mindfulness therapies involve wellness and health tourism as an economic and social driving force in places where these facilities are located. The aim of this research is to analyze specific rural area in Spain, Lleida, related to two different aspects:

  • Growing demand of society in its search of well-being and body care (concept of “health-express”) and
  • Contribution to economic and social developments of these areas.


Download data is not yet available.


Alén, E.M., Fraiz, J.A., &Rufin, R. (2006):Analysis of health spa customers’ expectations and perceptions:the case of Spanish establishments,PolytechnicalStudies Review, 3(5/6), 245–262.

Chen, K. H., Liu, H. H., & Chang, F. H. (2013):Essential customer service factors and the segmentation of older visitors within wellness tourism based on hot springs hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 122-132.

Crespi-Vallbona, M., &Dimitrovski, D. (2016): Food markets visitors: a typology proposal, British Food Journal, 118(4), 840-857.

Cockerell, N. (1996):Spas and health resorts in Europe,Travel & Tourism Analyst, (1), 53-77.

Cohen, E. (2008):Medical tourism in Thailand, In E. Cohen (Ed.), Explorations in Thai tourism (pp. 225–255). Bingley: Emerald.

Dimitrovski, D., &Todorović, A. (2015):Clustering wellness tourists in spa environment,Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 259-265.

Douglas, N. (2001):Traveling for Health: Spa and Health Resorts. In Special Interest Tourism, Douglas N, Douglas N, Derrett R (eds). John Wiley and Sons: Brisbane; 260–281.

Dunn, H.L. (1959):High Level Wellness for Man and Society. American Journal of Public Health 49(6): 786–792.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. & Cooper,M. (2009):Health and Wellness Tourism. Spas and Hot Springs. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Henderson, J.C. (2003):Healthcare tourism in Southeast Asia, Tourism Review International, 7, 111–121.

IDESCAT, Catalan Government,http://www.idescat.cat/en/ (15.04. 2016).

Koh, S., Yoo, JJ-E. &Boeger, C.A. (2010):Importance performance analysis with benefit segmentation of spa goers, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 22(5), 1–20.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2004): Vivir con plenitud las crisis. Como utilizar la sabiduríadelcuerpo y de la mente para afrontar el estrés, el dolor y la enfermedad. Barcelona: Kairós.

Konu, H., Laukkanen, T. &Komppula, R. (2011):Using ski destination choice criteria to segment Finnish ski resort customers, Tourism Management 32, 1096–1105.

Lee, C. F.& King, B. E. (2008):Using the Delphi method to assess the potential of Taiwan's hot springs tourism sector,International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 341-352.

Lagradera, F. (2009): Ejerciciofísicosostenible: unavía de conocimientoprácticohacia el bienestar y la felicidad. RevistaCitius, Altius, Fortius, 9, 1-22.

Lavilla, M., Lopez, B.& Molina, D. (2008): Mindfulness o cómopracticar el aquí y ahora. Paidos, Barcelona.

Lo, A., Qu, H.&Wetprasit, P. (2013):Realms of Tourism Spa Experience: The Case of Mainland Chinese Tourists,Journal of China Tourism Research, 9(4), 429-451.

Loureiro, S.M.C., Almeida, M.& Rita, P. (2013):The effect of atmospheric cues and involvement on pleasure and relaxation: The spa hotel context, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 35–43.

Madanoglu, M.&Brezina, S. (2008):Resort spas: how are they massaging hotel revenues?International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(1), 60-66.

Mair, H. (2005):Tourism, health and the pharmacy: Towards a critical understanding of health and wellness tourism, Tourism, 53(4), 335–346.

Mak, A.H.N., Wong, K.K.F.& Chang, R.C.Y. (2009):Health or self-indulgence? The motivations and characteristics of spa-goers, International Journal of Tourism Research, 11, 185–199.

Marić, D., Marinkovic, V., Maric, R. &Dimitrovski, D. (2016): Analysis of tangible and intangible hotel service quality components, Industrija, 44(1), in press.

Mcneil, K.R. &Ragins, E.J. (2005):Staying in the spa marketing game: Trends, challenges, strategies and techniques, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(1), 31–39.

Miller E.T. (1996):Salonovations’ Day Spa Operations, Milady Publication: New York.

Mueller, H.& Kaufmann, E.L. (2001):Wellness tourism: Market analysis of a special health tourism segment and implications for the hotel industry, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(1), 5–17.

Pesonen, J., Laukkanen, T.&Komppula, R. (2011):Benefit segmentation of potential wellbeing tourists, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 17(4), 303–314.

Puczkó, L.&Bacharov, M. (2006):Spa, bath, thermae: What's behind the labels, Tourism Recreation Research, 31(1), 83–91.

Sheldon, P.&Bushell, R. (2009):Introduction to Wellness and Tourism, In Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit, Place, Bushell R, Sheldon P (eds). Cognizant Communication Books: New York.

Sheldon, P.J. &Park, S.Y. (2008):Sustainable Wellness Tourism: Governance and EntrepreneurshipIssues, Actaturistica 20(2), 151–172.

Smith, M.& Kelly, C. (2006):Wellness tourism, Tourism Recreation Research, 31(1), 1–4.

Smith, M.&Puczko, L. (2009):Health and wellness tourism, Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science and Technology Books.

Snoj, B.&Mumel, D. (2002):The measurement of perceived differences in service quality. The case of health spas in Slovenia, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(4), 362–379.

Sekliuckiene, J. &Langviniene, N. (2015):Service perspectives in healthiness and sport tourism in Lithuania: case of spa,Economics and management, (14), 505-512.

Valls, J. & Casas, M. (2006):Viajeroseuropeos 2010. XV SimposioInternacional de Turismo y Ocio.ESADE.Fira de Barcelona, 3 de maig de 2006.

How to Cite
Vallbona, M., & Dimitrovski, D. (2016). WELL-BEING AS DRIVING FORCE FOR ECONOMIC RECUPERATION OF TRADITIONAL SPAS, LLEIDA, SPAIN. TISC - Tourism International Scientific Conference Vrnjačka Banja, 1(1), 173-190. Retrieved from http://www.tisc.rs/proceedings/index.php/hitmc/article/view/215