• Gianluca Rossoni Lawyer, contract professor of tourism legislation at University of Bergamo (Italy)
Keywords: tour guides, freedom to provide services, cultural heritage, consumer protection, principle of proportionality


Tourism is complex and tour guides regulation is not an exception. Italian legislation historically protected local authorized and qualified tour guides that were entitled of a territorial exclusive, while tour guides coming from other regions of Italy different from the place of their qualification or from third Member-states were prevented to provide their services. Italy always considered a tour guide as an intellectual profession rather than a mere provider of services and resisted to the liberalization process processed by the European Union. By virtue of the necessity to save the national historic and artistic heritage, Italy created the “specialized tour guide” with territorial exclusivity which was later dismissed by the internal jurisprudence as it is contrary to the freedom to provide services principle established by the European Union. Consequently, the scope of this essay is to propose a solution able to balance the aspiration of Italy in protecting the national historic and artistic heritage and working rights of this category of service's providers.


Download data is not yet available.


Pérez Guerra, R. (2007). Código de Turismo, Aranzadi, Pamplona.

Tesauro, G. (2010). Diritto dell'Unione Europea, Cedam, Padova.

Morandi, F., Franceschelli, V. (2013). Manuale di Diritto del Turismo, Giappichelli, Torino.

Ferretti, A. (2013). Manuale di diritto dei beni culturali e del paesaggio, Simone, Napoli.

Santagata, R. (2014). Diritto del Turismo, UTET, Torino.

Cavallari, C. (2016). Manuale di Diritto dell'Unione Europea, Nel diritto editore, Roma.

Vipiana, P. M. (2017), Diritto pubblico del turismo, Pacini Giuridica, Pisa.

Righi, L. (2005). Professioni turistiche e principi comunitari: si riaccende la “guerra delle guide”. Diritto del Turismo. Vol. 3/2005, 281-292.

Righi, L. (2005). Professioni turistiche e “liberalizzazioni”: le guide vincono la battaglia, ma perdono la “guerra”. Diritto del Turismo. Vol. 3/2007, 228-239.

Fosman J. (2008). Tour guides: A Legal Perspective. International Travel Law Journal, Issue Three 2008, 125-134.

Rossoni, G. (2008). Recent Developments in Italy concerning the Regulation of Tour Guides. International Travel Law Journal, Issue Four 2008, 174-181.

Tavernese A., Nicotera, L., Nicotera R. (2014). La figura professionale della guida turistica e il suo “ruolo” culturale nei musei, Rivista italiana di Diritto del Turismo. Vol. 12/2014, 359-370.

The European Year of Cultural Heritage,, (19.04.2018)

Legal sources

Commission v Italy, C-180/89, 26.02.1991

Constitutional Law 3/2001

Decree of Republic President of 13.12.1995

Directive 2006/123/EC on service in the internal market, OJ L 376/36, 27.12.2006

Directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications, OJ L 281, 23.11.1995

EU Commission Expert Group, State of play of the internal market in the tourism sector, 19.02.2011

EU pilot 4277/12/MARK

Judgement 2017/3859

Law 97/2013

Law 234/2012

Law Decree, 7/2007

Law 40/2007

Legislative decree 79/2011

Mibact Decrees 07.04.2015/11.12.2015

Rulings 222/2008 and 271/2009 of Italian Constitutional Court

How to Cite
Rossoni, G. (2018). DEVELOPMENTS IN ITALY CONCERNING THE REGULATION OF TOUR GUIDES: AN ENDLESS DISPUTE. Tourism International Scientific Conference Vrnjačka Banja - TISC, 3(2), 45-62. Retrieved from